Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Collective Behavior - 11901 Words

Chapter I: The Study of Collective Behavior A. What Is Collective Behavior? As we review these pages for the final time sections of Los Angeles are in flames in response to a jury verdict exonerating police whose beating of an African American man was captured on videotape. Supporters and opponents of abortion take to the streets daily. Mexico City searches for answers to a gas explosion that leveled a 40 square block area. The number of men wearing pony tails and one earring and the number of people saying and understanding yo, dude seems to be increasing. These diverse actions fall within the area sociologists call collective behavior. Some fields in sociology are relatively easy to define and their meaning can be grasped immediately,†¦show more content†¦Quarantelli and Russell Dynes, has had a world-wide impact. The center has served as a clearing house and international model for other research centers and researchers. Its research has been useful to disaster planning and control efforts. As we will note in chapter III the research on disasters has revealed some counter-intuitive findings. Apart from its direct usefulness, knowledge of collective behavior is relevant to you as an educated person and as a participant in a democratic society. It calls attention to some of the most basic questions about human beings. There is the question posed by Hobbes: how is social order possible? How fragile is the social order and what happens when it breaks down? There is the question raised by Freud: how rational is modern man in an industrial urban setting? There is the question posed by Karl Marx: how do societies change? Does history follow a pre-determined path? Are individuals simply pawns of some more profound historical necessity or do persons make their own history? Why are social reform efforts frequently unsuccessful or limited in their impact or duration? Of course in this short text we can not begin to do justice to these questions, but the study of collective behavior offers one way to approach them. As a social science field its eclectic nature gives it some distinctive elements. Those concerned with ever greaterShow MoreRelatedStudy of Collective Behavior by Sociologists1307 Words   |  5 PagesCollective behavior can be observed in many forms. In the view of sociologist Neil Smelser, â€Å"collective behavior is the relatively spontaneous and unstructured behavior of a group of people who are reacting to a common influence in an ambiguous situation†. (Stolley, 2005) Other sociologists define collective behavior as spontaneous activities that involve large numbers of people violating established norms. This fluidity makes it more difficult for sociologists to generalize about people’s behaviorRead MoreCollective Behavior11916 Words   |  48 PagesChapter I: The Study of Collective Behavior A. What Is Collective Behavior?   As we review these pages for the final time sections of Los Angeles are in flames in response to a jury verdict exonerating police whose beating of an African American man was captured on videotape. Supporters and opponents of abortion take to the streets daily. Mexico City searches for answers to a gas explosion that leveled a 40 square block area. The number of men wearing pony tails and one earring and the number ofRead MoreThe Theory Of Collective Behavior Essay1219 Words   |  5 Pagesand others by engaging in various types of collective action, such as protesting in the streets, that dramatize those grievances and concerns and demand that something be done about them.† (Ruud Kreisi Hanspeter, Saul.A. Sarah, Snow.A. David, pg 3) The theories of social movements are discussed below. Theory of collective behaviour: Collective behaviour bears an intimate relation to social change. In broader sense, collective behaviour refers to the behaviour of two orRead MoreCollective Behavior And Their Theories Essay1745 Words   |  7 PagesQuestion 1: Discuss collective behavior and their theories. Collective behavior according to Smelser is relatively spontaneous and unstructured behavior of a group of people who are reacting to a common influence in an ambiguous situation. Another definition given in the book Sociology: Comprehensive edition indicates that collective behavior refers to relatively unplanned and relatively unstructured behavior by large numbers of individuals acting with or being influenced by other individuals. TheRead MoreCollective Behavior Theories1765 Words   |  8 PagesRobert Park first coined the term collective behavior in the early 1900s. In class, it was taught that his definition included social unrest, crowds, sects, publics, mass movements, crowd mind, propaganda, and fashion as forms of collective behavior. Collective behavior has shaped our everyday lives in more ways than most of us care to think about. Collective behavior is defined as any event in which a group of people engages in unusual behavior. Unusual may have a negative connotation for someRead MoreCommon Forms Of Collective Behavior1511 Words   |  7 Pages Collective behavior is a term sociologists use to refer to a miscellaneous set of behaviors in which large numbers of people engage. More specifically, collective behavior refers to relatively spontaneous and relatively unstructured behavior by large numbers of individuals acting with or being influenced by other individuals. Relatively spontaneous means that the behavior is somewhat spontaneous but also somewhat planned, while relatively unstructured means that the behavior is somewhat organizedRead More Collective Behavior Essay481 Words   |  2 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;This event is an example of a social movement. This was simply an organized group of people that gathered for the purpose of resisting change (In this case, the strategies discussed by the aforementioned institutions) through their collective action. Specifically, this type of social movement is called a resistance movement, because this group was in opposition to change of a certain aspect of our society. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The main reason why activists gathered in protestRead MoreThe Collective Behavior within an Organization624 Words   |  3 PagesOrganizational culture is a way to describe the collective behavior within an organization, the values, norms, language, symbols, status, and beliefs and habits. We can also view organizational behavior as the collection of behaviors within an organization that cause those members to perceive their organization and others. In fact, organizational culture affects the way individuals and groups interact with each other, clients, stakeholders and the public. Because people are so individualistic, itRead MoreAn Example Of Experiencing Collective Behavior1875 Words   |  8 Pages16. An example of experiencing collective behavior in life is one particular moment during college. At my time at USM, I participated in multiple protests across campus. The first being the students of Missouri protest. This protest was run by the group USM f uture, a student run organization that focuses on bringing more diversity to USM. Maine is a very white populated state with little diversity. I’ve noticed that most of my classmates are white and some classes, I tend to be the only person ofRead MoreCollective Behavior and the Assertion of Individuality: A Study956 Words   |  4 Pagesare engaged in collective behavior. THESIS: Those who are able to overcome collective behavior and allow for their individuality to determine their own outcomes exemplify the best of human nature. The most convincing piece of evidence to reinforce this assertion is found at the beginning of the 15th chapter of Thios Societys Myths and Realities: An Introduction to Social Change. Deviation from collective behavior, which the author defines as spontaneous and unstructured behavior (Thio, p. 474)

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Marxist Theory And Social Class - 1238 Words

In contemporary Western societies, there is a social division due to stratification and classes. Strydom (2005) defines social class as group of individuals that share similarities like power and prestige. Saunders (2001) states that stratification is the presence of distinct social groups which are ranked. Therefore, the major difference is that stratification shows diversity while social classes defines an inequality. In Marxist theories, society is divided between two classes, and social stratification is the conflict between them. To illustrate this, China has faced communism for over a decade, in which has caused major social inequalities within the society. In fact, China is one of the few countries that the forces of communism and capitalism are involved. In this essay,it will describe the main idea of Marxist theory and other theories about social class ,then make an assessment of the use of Marxist theory in today’s world. For Marx there were two distinct groups in society; the ruling and subject group. The ruling class are those who own the means of production distribution and exchange, they also called the Bourgeoisie, but the subject class is those who must sell their labour in the market place in order to live, they could be called the Proletariat. Marx believed that the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat was in permanent opposition, the bourgeoisie exploits the proletariat as the wages workers receive for their labour is a fraction of the market value of theShow MoreRelatedNeo-Marxist Contribution to Theories O Social Class Inequality884 Words   |  4 PagesHow far would you say that Neo-Marxist have contributed to the continuing relevance of theories of social class inequality today? Social class inequality can be defined as the existence of socially created inequalities among and within classes. They can be attributed to various factors such as race, colour, ethnicity, gender, income, etc. It is arguable that inequalities that exist in post-independence societies as well as the inequalities which exist between nations can be directly traced backRead MoreCompare and Contrast the Marxist and Weberian Theories of Social Class. Why Do You Think Marx Emphasises Relations of Production in the Formation of Classes Whilst Weber Suggests the Market and Consumption Are the Important Factors?1750 Words   |  7 PagesCompare and contrast the Marxist and Weberian theories of social class. Why do you think Marx emphasises relations of production in the formation of classes whilst Weber suggests the market and consumption are the important factors? All human societies have been class based in some way, shape or form and, interpreting this in the most basic way, it can be said that in every known human society there has been a fundamental division between two broad social groups, the buorgeoisie that own and controlRead MoreFunctionalism And Its Impact On Society983 Words   |  4 Pagesemphasize the social needs of society over the individual’s need. Robert Merton, a critic of functionalism comments that â€Å"because many functionalisms have assumed that every social practice and institution must be understood in terms of its adaptive function for the society as a whole, they have tended to give a primary value to existing social forms.† (p. 34) This critique states that the social institutions are adapting for the society. The society is the independent factor and the social institutionsRead MoreThe Marxist Feminism Theory And The Social System1176 Words   |  5 PagesHealth is a social construct system and h ealth inequality is the result from social dysfunction. Health determinants are the combined factors that influence an individual or the community’s’ health such as the social environment, economic environment and the individual characteristics and behaviours (Germov, 2014). Firstly, the Marxist feminism will be discussed. This theory believes social structure shapes the group’s behaviours and perspectives. People who have a higher socioeconomic status haveRead MoreMarxism and Health Care1239 Words   |  5 Pagesapproaches towards health were not adequately utilised as a means of gaining an enriched understanding of concurrent physical and social issues relating to health care. The application of theoretical perspectives in reference to health emerged during the 1950’s and was commonly perceived as being empirical rather then theoretical in nature (Gray, D. E. 2006). Theories are essentially an explanation of how things work and why they happen (Germov, J. 2009). In effect they provide us with answers throughRead MoreEvaluate the usefulness of Marxist theory to our understanding of crime and deviance1201 Words   |  5 PagesEvaluate the usefulness of Marxist theory to our understanding of crime and deviance (40 marks) Synopticity - Crime Deviance sociological theory Marxist explanations of crime and deviance, like their work on other areas like the family and education, rest on an economic and structural analysis of society that sees a class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. This struggle comprises the attempts by the proletariat to free themselves from the domination of the bourgeoisieRead MoreEssay about A Comparison of Marxist and Functionalist Views on Society541 Words   |  3 PagesA Comparison of Marxist and Functionalist Views on Society There is a division between functionalists and Marxists over the functions of the society. Marxism was founded by Karl Marx. Marx saw society as divided into two major parts, the economic base otherwise known as the infrastructure and the super-structure. Functionalists see society as a set of parts which work together to form a whole. Functionalism is also called a consensus theory. Marxism and functionalismRead MoreA Marxist Evaluation Of Feminism And Gender Equality Essay1572 Words   |  7 PagesA Marxist evaluation of feminism and gender equality is another failure of the Neo-Marxist system to generate any serious change in a neoliberal capitalistic model. Feminism, since the 1970s, has become a subjective and distorted version of what it was meant to be—a system that sought to raise the rights of women out of the home (as domestic servants) and into the workplace. In the late 20th and early 21st century, the idea of Marxism as a system of economic analysis for women to dissect the inequalitiesRead MoreThe Marxist Theory Of Marxist Criticism757 Words   |  4 PagesThe Marxist theory research What is the marxist criticism? Marxists believe that all of human history has been divided by socioeconomic classes. They believe that the progression of history so far has been pushed forward by these class struggles. From these struggles they say that capitalism was born, but eventually the struggles will reach a breaking point where the lower and middle classes turn on the wealthy, leading to the implementation of socialism. Looks at any struggles between differentRead MoreTheories Of Marxist Theory And Conflict Theory1066 Words   |  5 PagesMany theories have interrelated theories and derive from one another. Marxist theory has connection with labeling theory and conflict theory. Marxist theory and conflict theory explains law and criminal justice but does not oversee multi-groups conflict of society (Akers 2017). Marxist theory is a sociological model which is based on conflict of classes (Akers 2017). Marx viewed the industrial society or capitalist society from a macro point of view. Marxism is also a conflict theory, believing that

Monday, December 9, 2019

Movie Summary Maleficent Essay Example For Students

Movie Summary Maleficent Essay Have you ever been forced to go to the movie theatre to see a movie that you really don’t have any interest in watching, expecting that the movie will be just â€Å"okay†? It happens to me quite frequently, and more than it probably should. I am not much of a go to the theatre to watch a movie type of person. When I went to theatres to go see Maleficent, I thought it would be boring and all about how evil she was. It turns out I was very wrong. Maleficent was one of the best movies I have ever seen in my entire life. The timing of the movie release date and how long the playing time was, was perfect. Its release date was May 28th, 2014, making it come out right around the time that summer begins for school aged children who may have been interested in watching the movie. The movie itself was a whopping 97 minutes. Which transfers over to an hour and thirty-seven minutes long. It really didn’t seem like I was in the theatre for that long, and keep in mind I am not the theatre type of person. The movie was very captivation of my attention and I was interested the entire time the movie was running. If I were to rate how long the movie was in correlation to how good it was, I would give it a 10 out of 10; considering that the average movie length in the year 2014 is around 130 minutes long, which is two hours and ten minutes long. The acting in Maleficent was phenomenal and very believable. Angelina Jolie played the main character, Maleficent, who was the good fairy that turned into a very bad fairy. The character she played had giant horns coming out of her head, the biggest wings anyone in the entire fairy land had ever seen before and, cheek bones that could cut through steel. With all of that, you couldn’t see any struggle. She was aware of her horns and massive wings, but not to the point that we could tell that she was aware of them. She plays the role very well and you can tell that she really is in tune with the character that she had to become in order to be in the movie. In my opinion, Angelina’s acting skills were at the point where they were better than some of the special effects. Angelina really has that heroic presence. Throughout the entire movie, even if she was in the background of the scene, you could tell that she was an important character. Elle Fanning also starred in the movie as Princess Aurora, also known as Sleeping Beauty. She plays the victim in the movie very well, even though she doesn’t exactly know she is a victim. She is very elegant, sweet natured, and exactly what you would picture a princess to act like. The cinematography in this movie is a force to be reckoned with. To start out, a large majority of this movie takes place in a magical forest like setting. The flowing rivers are crystal clear and the trees are covered in green leaves, and the landscaping is beautiful. There is a scene in the movie where Maleficent is trying to block out the king from her fairy land and during this scene, she tells the trees to grow and they do. They grow into these thick trees that are extremely tall and pointy at the top. The trees act as a force field to keep the intruders out. Another scene that shows great cinematography is the dragon scene. Long story short, Maleficent was a good fairy at one point in her life. What made her into a â€Å"bad fairy†/villain, was when her wings were stolen from her. Fast forwarding to the end of the movie, she makes it to the castle where her wings are being held, all because she followed Aurora there to make sure that she made it there safely, even though it was not safe for Maleficent herself to be there. .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b , .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .postImageUrl , .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b , .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b:hover , .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b:visited , .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b:active { border:0!important; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b:active , .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6988eac42c9d598e6d9cb448fd84e87b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Treasure of the Sierra Madre - Movie Review EssayAurora ends up finding the wings while Maleficent is in this battle with a fire breathing dragon that is the size of the ballroom the event took place in. I know that gigantic fire breathing dragons are not real, but it sure did look like it. The special effects were great. Maleficent ends up slaying the dragon and Aurora lets Maleficent’s wings out of the glass box they had been in, and the wings flew straight to Maleficent and attached themselves as if they were never removed in the first place. This story was very deep and had a great plot. It is in some ways a spin-off of Sleeping Beauty. Sleeping Beauty being Princess Aurora and Maleficent the villain that cursed Princess Aurora with the curse that only a true loves kiss can make her spell disappear. More into depth on what made Maleficent into a villain was when she was younger. She lived in a peaceful forest, and fell in love with a human. This human had a mission to become king, and in order to do so, he had to prove it to his nation he was worthy. He went back and forth between the two kingdoms, gaining trust from all of the fairies. One night though, he cut off Maleficent wing’s, making her very angry and vengeful. Years go by and Maleficent hears from her bird friend that the king, the man who she was once in love with and cut off her wings, was having a baby girl. Still upset with the whole situation, she goes to the baby’s christening and casts a curse over the baby, before the sun sets on her sixteenth birthday she will prick her finger on the spindle of a spinning wheel, and she will fall into a death-like sleep. She will only awake with true love’s kiss. The King, nervously decides to send his daughter to live with three good fairies in a cabin in the middle of nowhere, in hope that the curse will not work if she is not near the castle, her parents, or Maleficent. The king’s plan does not work though. Maleficent finds where the child is being kept, and watches her grow up from afar. She eventually accidently runs into Princess Aurora, and Princess Aurora thinks that she is her fairy god mother, since she recalls seeing her multiple times throughout her life. Maleficent begins to feel love toward the child and even tries to go as far as breaking the curse that she made, but it is not possible, since it was an unbreakable curse. Since she realizes that she cannot break the curse herself she is set on Aurora having this boy she met in the woods kiss her, in hopes that he is her true love and can break the curse. A few days go by and it is nearing midnight of her 16th birthday. She is led to the room where she must prick her finger. She does so, and Prince Phillip, the guy she met in the woods comes to kiss her and it turns out that he is not her true love and cannot break Princess Aurora’s curse. In fact, it is Maleficent that kisses her and awakes Princess Aurora, she apologizes and tells the princess that it was her that casted the spell, but it was when she was young and heartbroken. The two try to escape the castle, and this is the scene I mentioned earlier involving the fire breathing dragon and the replacement of Maleficents wings. In the end the forest kingdom is restored and Aurora is crowned the queen of both the human and fairy kingdoms, which have become united thanks to her and Maleficent. .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 , .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .postImageUrl , .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 , .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74:hover , .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74:visited , .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74:active { border:0!important; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74:active , .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74 .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue471df2cddcd2cf54efd0ea1a4dbfb74:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Oleanna by David Mamet The Birmingham Stage Company, directed by John Harrison EssayOverall I think the movie was great. I would see it over and over again, I enjoyed it that much. I would also recommend it to anyone who likes action movies, love stories, movies that have a plot twist at the end, and much more. It wasn’t your average fairy tale Disney movie, and it could arguably be better than some other movies Disney has released. Overall, the film looked great, the effects were excellent, the story worked, and the performances from all of the actresses and actors was good.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Mythical Creatures Essay Example

Mythical Creatures Essay A very good morning to Pn. Nirmala and my dear friends. Today my partner, Kogilavani and myself, Elisha Yeo would like to give an aural presentation on mythical creatures. Mythical creatures have always been a subject of fascination and a topic that is discussed constantly throughout the ages in many different countries. Mythical creatures are almost always literary creatures that generated popularity out of literary circulation and story-telling. They are legendary creatures that at one point were believed to be real beings, while some have their origin traced from literary myths. Mythical creatures can be divided into two groups; the first group consists of creatures that everyone agrees to have existed or still exist today and the other group is composed of creatures in which not everybody agrees as to whether they have existed or not. While the first group is asserted only on literary works and word of mouth, its impact becomes stronger over time. The tale becomes a legend, the legend becomes a history. The other group is considered to be consisting of more elusive magical mythical creatures that still make people wonder if they are real or not. These creatures are more aggressively shown and described on articles, photographs, journals and movies.. The tale becomes a legend, the legend becomes a history. The other group is considered to be consisting of more elusive magical mythical creatures that still make people wonder if they are real or not. We will write a custom essay sample on Mythical Creatures specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Mythical Creatures specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Mythical Creatures specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Some mythical creatures, such as the dragon and griffin have their origin in traditional mythology and have been believed to be real creatures. Others were based on real baby creatures, originating in garbled accounts of travelers tales; such as the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, which supposedly grew tethered to the earth (and was actually a type of fern). Examples of the legendary creatures can be found in medieval bestiaries and old stories. Conversely, some creatures downplayed as just storytelling, have been ediscovered and found to be real in recent times, such as the Giant squid (the Kraken). In Africa, Natives of the Congo told European visitors of an animal that looked like a cross between a zebra and a giraffe. While the visitors assumed this is just a folk lore, a british scientist found the Okapi to be real. Often mythical creatures are hybrids, a combination of two or more animals. For example, centaur is a combination of a man and horse, the minotaur of a man and bull, and the mermaid, half woman and half fish. These were not always intended to be understood as literal juxtapositions of parts from disparate species. Lacking a common morphological vocabularyclassical and medieval scholars and travelers would attempt to describe unusual animals by comparing them point-for-point with familiar: the giraffe, for example, was called camelopard, and thought of as a creature half-camel, and half-leopard. After reading through the list of mythical creatures I found the phoenix to be a very interesting creature. The Phoenix has long been presented as a symbol of rebirth, immortality, and renewal. The phoenix originated in ancient mythology and has gone through a variety of representations in art/literature, ranging from being fully birdlike to having the head of a dog and suckling its young. Typically, it is considered benevolent, but some tales suggest that humans are not always safe around it. Further, many tales share elements with those of the phoenix. Originally, the phoenix was identified by the Egyptians as a strork or heron-like bird called a benu, known from theBook of the Dead and other Egyptian texts as one of the sacred symbols of worship at Heliopolis, closely associated with the rising sun and the Egyptian sun-God Ra. The Greeks subsequently pictured the bird more like a peacock or an eagle and identified it with their own word phoenix ( ), meaning the color purple-red or crimson (cf. Phoenicia) or a palm tree. According to the Greek mythology the phoenix lived in Phoenicia next to a well. At dawn, it bathed in the water of the well, and the Greek sun-god Helios stopped his chariot in order to listen to its song. Herodotus spoke about the unique capabity of the bird to be consumed in the flames and be reborn from the ashes. In China, the Fenghuang is a mythical bird superficially similar to the phoenix. It is the second most-respected legendary creature (second to the dragon), largely used to represent the empress and females, and as such as the counterpart to the Chinese Dragon, traditionally seen as masculine or imperial. The phoenix is considered the greatest and the leader of birds. In Russian folklore, the phoenix was called the firebird. The phoenix was featured in the flags of Alexander Ypsilantis and of many other captains during the Greek Revolution, symbolizing Greeces rebirth. In addition, the first modern Greek currency bore the name of phoenix. Despite being replaced by a royal Coat of Arms, it remained a popular symbol. What do you think Kogilavani? Which mythical creature did you like best after going through the list of mythical creatures. I on the other hand find the dragon most interesting. Dragons arelegendary creatures, typically with serpentine or otherwise reptilian traits, that feature in the myths of many cultures. There are two distinct cultural traditions of dragons: theEuropean Dragon, derived from European folk traditions and ultimately related to Greek and Middle Eastern mythologies, and the Chinese Dragon, with counterparts in Japan, Korea and other Asian countries. The two traditions may have evolved separately, but have influenced each to a certain extent, particularly with the cross-cultural contact of recent centuries. The English worddragon

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Why College Students Should Not Turn To Caffeine

Why College Students Should Not Turn To Caffeine Introduction Caffeine is a stimulant that is extracted from plants with its major source being coffee plants. In its extracted form, caffeine exists as crystals which are bitter in taste. As a stimulating drug, caffeine is commonly used by youths especially those in college. This paper seeks to discuss the reasons why college students should not turn to caffeine. The paper will look at some of the trend of involvement of college students into caffeine consumption and the risks that surround consumption of caffeine by college students.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Why College Students Should Not Turn To Caffeine specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Caffeine usage by college students The use of caffeine by students has been identified as a common issue. Being readily available in soft drinks such as â€Å"coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, soft drinks and over the counter preparations† (Landrum 151), student s who have come to believe that caffeine can stimulate their bodies to respond more to the demands for more study time are increasingly getting involved in the consumption of caffeine purposely for its stimulating effects (Landrum 151). A number of researches that have over time been conducted on the use of caffeine by college students revealed some trends in such consumptions. One of the trends that have been realized with respect to the consumption of the drug in college is that caffeine consumption by students bears some relationship to the level of effort that students need at a particular time in their study. This follows the college system that has less work for the students at the beginning of an academic season which gradually increases with time as the students approach their exams. According to researches, it has been significantly identified that as students approach the exam periods, their rate of consumption of caffeine increases. The students have therefore associated caffeine with the capacity to study, an opinion that is promoting the consumption of the substance among college students (Landrum 151). Females have been identified to consume caffeine more than male students. For whatever reasons, the consumption of the substance is thus dependent on sex and the more female students are in a college institution, the more consumption of caffeine is likely to be registered by the institution. The level of seniority of students in college also influences consumption of the substance. It has, for example, been identified that the level of consumption of caffeine is directly proportional to the study levels in college. A higher level of consumption is thus realized by senior students than their junior counterparts. It therefore brings about the impression that college environment has a characteristic feature of influencing students to use the substance.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your f irst paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whether this influence is induced by the institutions’ systems or just a mere influence that is driven by college students among themselves, the issue is that college students are turning to the consumption of caffeine as a means of securing their academic success. The relationship between the consumption of the substance to the level of study of students and the academic season in relation to exams supports the claim that college students are resorting to caffeine (Landrum 151). Why college students should not turn to caffeine The use of caffeine by college students can be attributed to influence that is triggered by either the students or the academic environment that is occasionally strenuous to students forcing them to resort into substances that can stimulate their bodies to sustain extra efforts as they extend their studying time. There are, however, a number of reasons as to why students should not see caffeine as a so lution to acquiring of extra efforts in studies. Consumption of caffeine has been associated with a number of risks and dangers that can pose some limitations to a student. One of the effects of caffeine is the interruption that it causes to a person’s sleep. People who are deeply into high level of caffeine consumptions have the problems of interrupted sleeps. This interruption is particularly dangerous for students as they are expected to have enough rest and sleep in their lives. The students will on the contrary have insufficient amount of sleep that is most likely transmitted into the day when full attention is required in class. Attending classes in a sleepy condition will therefore reduce the student’s effectiveness in understanding. According to Kley Kara, consumption of caffeine has the effect of increasing â€Å"heart rate and blood pressure† (Kley 1). Such impacts have a possibility of overworking the heart which may lead to malfunctioning of the hear t. Students who are much into caffeine consumption are therefore in danger of heart problems that can arise from issues such as cardiac arrests due to the heart muscles being overworked. Such complications have greater impacts in the life of an individual including death in the case of severe arrests. Same complications can arise in the case increased blood pressure. Dizziness has also been an impact of consumption of significant level of caffeine. Together with â€Å"irritability and restlessness†, a student’s level of concentration will be compromised following consumption of caffeine (Kley 1). Other effects of caffeine include â€Å"decreased blood flow to the stomach, increased risk of osteoporosis in later age† (Kley 1) besides its addictive nature. An individual who falls into addiction of caffeine consumption further has the danger of prolonged and more severe impacts of the general effects of caffeine consumption (Kley 1). Excess consumption of caffeine has also been associated with â€Å"dehydration, diarrhea and ulcers† (Faith Purpose 1). Medical complications of these effects have negative impacts on a student’s ability to attend and concentrate in class. Dehydration, for example, leads to extreme exhaustion of the body following reduced functionality of body organs; some of these functions are related to the brain system and thus induces a state that may not be favorable for a student to study.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Why College Students Should Not Turn To Caffeine specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cases such as ulcers on the other hand have the capacity of subjecting a person to hospitalization. A student will therefore suffer from pain as well as miss class lessons while undergoing treatment following medical complications that are induced by consumption of caffeine. Other direct impacts of excessive consumption of caffeine incl ude â€Å"increased premenstrual, problems in the stomach and the esophagus, headaches and risen body temperature† (Faith Purpose 1). Usage of caffeine also has the threat of reducing levels of some minerals in the body. It has, for example, been established that excess caffeine in the body plays a role in reducing the level of iron and calcium in the body. An individual who consumes large amounts of caffeine therefore risks deficiency of such minerals and the consequences of such deficiencies. Deficiency of iron, for example, which is essential in the development of bones and the production of red blood cells, can therefore pose threat to a person’s well being. Excessive caffeine usage is thus identified to be dangerous to lives of students (Faith Purpose 1). Upon consumption of substances that are rich in caffeine, a person experiences decreased time duration taken to react to situations. This means that consumption of caffeine rich substances can induce faster unmed iated reactions. Whether in class work or outside class, a student is subject to making quick decisions that could be erroneous. A case of a mistake made in a class assignment or an exam due to the induced quick response of caffeine can cost a student marks and even grades in final grading in college. Since female college students are adults who can at the same time get pregnant, the dangers of caffeine to the health of an unborn child or an infant is equally a reason why caffeine consumption should be checked by female students. This danger can be discussed in two aspects: that of a college student who is expectant in school and is consuming high level of caffeine and that of a woman who got addicted to caffeine consumption while in college. Excessive intake of caffeine by an expectant woman is particularly dangerous in the fact that caffeine easily diffuses through the placenta into the unborn child’s system. Similarly, a breast feeding mother can pass caffeine content into her child’s body through the breast’s milk. The danger under these considerations is that while the adults’ body systems are developed enough to eliminate the toxic caffeine by natural processes, the body of an unborn or a young child is not developed enough to eliminate the caffeine contents in itself. Usage of caffeine by these women therefore induces a level of intoxication to their children. The concern should be adequately addressed under caffeine consumption at the college due to the possibility of addiction which might be effective through out a woman’s life (Goldberg 235).Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a possibility that a student engaged in consumption of caffeine products may be taking too much of the caffeine without being aware. Following the lack of specification of substances in terms of the level of caffeine that they contain, a student might as well get into excessive consumption of caffeine without his or her notice. This means that a student can still be subjected to the risks of excessive caffeine consumption without being aware (Walker and Humphries 75). There is, however, those arguments that seem to support the consumption of caffeine by college students. There are opinions that caffeine usage induces â€Å"increased sense of alertness, positive mood and alleviate headaches† among other benefits (Kley 1). Conclusion Consumption of substances that are rich in caffeine is highly adopted among students in collage following its stimulating effect. Though there are opinions of some benefits of caffeine in the body, the negative impacts that are associated with the consumption outnumbers the benefits and some of the consequences of caffeine consumption such as ulcers and heart and blood complications are fatal. It can therefore be concluded that college students should avoid or control their consumption of caffeine rich substances. Faith Purpose. Dangers of excessive caffeine consumption. Assatashakur, 2011. Web. Goldberg, Raymond. Drugs across the Spectrum. New York, NY: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. Kley, Kara. Caffeine, what every college student should know. Housing, 2010. Web. Landrum, Erick. College students’ use of caffeine and its relationship to personality. Psych, n.d. Web. Walker, Allan and Humphries, Courtney. The Harvard Medical School guide to healthy eating during pregnancy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005. Print.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Treating De Quervains Syndrome at Home

Treating De Quervains Syndrome at Home It is important to note that treating De Quervains syndrome, also known as gamers thumb, at home or without the direction of a doctor is possible, however, severe or chronic De Quervains syndrome should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider since, if left untreated, De Quervains syndrome can result in permanent injury and a loss of your range of motion and grip strength. Treating De Quervains syndrome should begin when symptoms first appear and continue as long as the symptoms persist or the cause is still relevant. Treatment should be done leading up towards a doctors appointment or during your data gathering activities while trying to determine the cause of your De Quervains syndrome. Treatments and their effectiveness should be noted within this data. The first step in treating De Quervains syndrome at home is taking care of your general health. Chronic inflammation affects a lot of people and can contribute to or hamper your recovery from most repetitive stress injuries, including De Quervains syndrome. General Health To make your De Quervains syndrome treatments the as effective as they can be you should be in good health and at a healthy body weight. Being overweight contributes to chronic inflammation and affects your circulation as well. And without good circulation, your body cant repair itself effectively. So maintaining a good circulatory system through cardiovascular exercise helps. Hydration Staying hydrated is important as well. A good rule of thumb to stay hydrated is to take your weight in pounds, slide the decimal to the left so you lose the ones column, and drink that many ounces of water. If you weigh 250 pounds then you should drink at least 25 ounces of water a day. Rest The best way to treat your De Quervains syndrome at home is to identify what activities are causing the repetitive stress and avoid doing them while allowing your wrist and thumb ample time to rest and heal. Being able to take a couple weeks off and not use your hand for much is almost always impossible. So at least try to reduce the length of time, the number of repetitions or strength required to perform the tasks causing the repetitive stress. If at all possible avoid repetitive motions of any type with the hand and wrist. Ice One of the most effective treatments for any inflammation, like De Quervains syndrome, is using ice. Ice reduces swelling and relieves pain. Use an ice pack regularly to reduce your inflammation following a 15 minute on - 15 minute off pattern. A cool pack, one that isnt as cold as frozen ice, can be kept on longer. Follow the manufacturers recommendation on these items. Over the Counter Medication The inflammation associated with De Quervains syndrome can be reduced with the use of over the counter anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. They are also effective at managing pain. Liniments and pain relieving balms can help temporarily relieve your pain, but often do not reduce the inflammation. Whether you use a pill or a topical pain reliever it is important to remember that they are simply masking your pain. The problem is still there and if you continue to stress the area while the pain is masked you can further injure yourself. Stabilization/Immobilization When treating De Quervains syndrome at home you may want to consider wearing a splint to immobilize the wrist and thumb that is being afflicted. A splint will completely immobilize your thumb and/or wrist allowing it to heal without further stressing the area. If complete immobilization is not practical then stabilization may help. To stabilize the wrist and thumb for De Quervains syndrome a brace or compression wrap is used to support the wrist and thumb, especially when gripping. This provides more support to the area reducing some of the stress and range of motion you would normally receive. But it does not impede you from all repetitive stress or further injuring yourself. Exercise Physical therapy is a vital part of treating and recovering from De Quervains syndrome. A doctor or physical therapist can provide you with an exercise regiment to help your particular condition and instruct you in the proper execution of those exercises. A couple of easy stretches can be performed on your own, however. These stretches should only be done a couple of times a day and you should not experience any pain when doing them. If they are hurting it may be time to see a doctor for your De Quervains syndrome. Stretching the muscle between the thumb and the palm is a good exercise. The inflammation and irritation of the tendons in De Quervains syndrome often destabilize the base of the thumb. It becomes weak and difficult to properly use. You can help relieve the stress at the base thumb joint by stretching and massaging the muscles and tissues that hold it in place. To perform this stretch grab your afflicted thumb with your other hand and pull the thumb away from your palm. Hold the stretch for ten to fifteen seconds and then release. Let the sensation die down completely before stretching again. Perform this stretch with the hands below the level of your heart for better circulation during the stretch. Massaging the web of muscle and tissue between the thumb and palm is beneficial as well. Next stretch the tendons that control the thumb and pass through the wrist, the ones causing the problem. Hold your hand in a relaxed fist and flex your wrist downward much like in Finkelsteins test. Dont flex your wrist to the point of pain, however. Just give it a relaxing stretch for ten to fifteen seconds and then release. These stretches should be done once or twice a day and no more. The area has very small muscles that can easily be overworked. If you strain those muscles and your thumb starts hurting give it a day or two before you begin stretching again. The stretching will have a cumulative relaxing effect on your De Quervains syndrome over the course of a couple of weeks. It is important to note that you should not stretch any part of your body when it is cold. So do not stretch your thumb after icing it or when under the effects of a pain reliever since it is easy to overstretch things in those cases.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 161

Summary - Essay Example to involve the OSHA under the cooperation program, Voluntary Protection Program (VPP), that encourage training and union reputation to keep worker injuries at a minimal rate, given that organizations are usually too focussed on their products and services to attend to the safety concerns of workers (Maguire 46). This action plan will involve all the major functions of the organization. A statement of conditions will be made. This is a guideline on the measures to be taken in case of safety emergencies. On the grounds and equipment, the material and equipment used in the production will be upgraded to modern standards so as to avoid safety violation. Modern equipment is computerized and safer because activities that are sensitive and risky are carried out by the machines instead of workers who are prone to error, one of main causes of accidents. The working condition of the equipment and materials is essential in ensuring the safety of the workers. Managers from the moulding, maintenance, and the assembly departments will be important in ensuring that the regular checks are made on the equipment to ensure the working condition is up to standard. To ensure the safety of employees, all the safety policies including the safety regulations, including the OSHA regulation will be incorporated, and those in contempt will be punished. A strict drug policy will be incorporated to ensure the safety of the workers and their colleague. This policy will apply to all the members of XYZ from the highest rank to the lowest rank. Risk assessment schedules will be conducted regularly in each department. The General Manager will demand consistent assessments regarding the activities of the workers and the conditions of the working environment. In implementing the action plan to raise the safety standards of the workplace, the management will initiate a multi-stakeholder plan to streamline the safety efforts of all the players. This will entail improving the both employee and

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The GE Money Americas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The GE Money Americas - Essay Example This paper presents a detailed discussion, analysis and illustration of leadership and talent management within GE Americas as a case study. The challenges which necessitated the need within GE Money Americas are discussed in addition to the model for change theory as applied within the company. In addition an evaluation of information gathered within the company as pertaining to leadership and talent management is given in the paper. Moreover the paper presents the speculated effects of the level of success that changes within GE Money Americas would have in the future operations of the company and recommendations on correct adjustments in case the change reduces its effectiveness. Need for Change in GE Money Americas The processes of managing employees within GE Money Americas were initially less integrated. This is demonstrated by the less centralized employee hiring system. The top executives within the company considered the centralized approach to employee management to be less effective because communication and sharing of ideas within the company was not motivated (Roderick, Lehmberg & John, 2009). The top executives within the company valued the role of effective human resource management as the definition of company success. It is in line with this that change was inevitable within the company. This change was aimed at improving the processes of talent management for the benefit of the company. Change was needed in all aspects of talent management within the company such as attracting new talent, sourcing, hiring, training and developing employees (Walsh, 2011). In addition there was need for change in the promotion of human resource within the company and their movement within various aspects or units of the company. The company’s executive identified the need to fuse the talent management strategy with the wider business strategy. It is because of this that it was considered necessary to centralize the strategy of managing the company staff ( Marquez, 2007). Through a centralized system of managing talent within a company, all employees are allowed to work in line with the common business strategy and business goals (Roderick, Lehmberg & John, 2009). In addition, a need for improved communication within GE Money Americas was identified. This was motivated by the view of communication by the company top executives as the most crucial element of any form of success. Communication is improved through the use of communication systems such as information technologies and applications which link all employees within an organization (Walsh, 2011). This promotes growth and innovativeness as a result of facilitated process of sharing ideas. More importantly there was a need for promoting interaction between the company leadership and all employees. This was aimed at ensuring that the needs of human capital were understood and efficiently met by the company leadership so that employees were left motivated. Model for Change Theory The lean approach is the model of change theory which was employed within GE Money Americas to bring about changes in leadership and talent management. Lean approach is a model for organization change which is designed to significantly cause improvements in the flow of business activities while eliminating any forms of wastes in work processes (Rothwell, 2012). This approach as employed within

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Impact of Social Class on Australians’ Life Chances Essay Example for Free

Impact of Social Class on Australians’ Life Chances Essay Sociologists will define class as categories in the society which are based on income, status, or the way they are viewed by the society. A Marxist analysis on the other hand features on the level of influence an individual has on the means of production. Matthews (2007) further defines a capitalist class which he says that it is the class that owns and controls most of the productive capital in the society. He says that in Australia, this class amounted to 5 % of the entire population in the year 1998. Theories have been developed about class that has resulted to numerous and conflicting ideas and researchers had to shift from using class as a theoretical framework for research. The dismissal of class analysis of various societal institutions as dogmatic, and ideological led McLaren Farahmandpur to state that â€Å"matters of class power are sanitized and its powerful effects on the life chances of working-class students is denuded or made invisible,† (Pearce, Down Moore 2008, para. 2). In Australia, about two thirds of the population is in the working class. These are people whose only productive asset is the ability to work. They sell their labour power to their employers who can range from the state, individual capitalists among others, in order to receive a wage which will enable them make ends meet. Another popular class is the middle class which can be said to be composed of individuals who own small businesses. They rely on their own labour power to produce output. They are however being driven away and into bankruptcy by large capital firms. There still exists the ruling class; they carry more social weight and power than the rest of the citizens. They have a direct influence on economic policies being developed in the nation. They support politicians and government, politically and financially. The state can also be categorized in this class as it is responsible for making and implementation of the law (Matthews 2007). Impact to Education There exists inequality in the access of university education, underachievement in education correlates negatively with the social class. Children from low-income families have limited access to educational resources. Their parents rarely get enough time to help them with their day to day challenges at school as they are so much occupied in their work places. They work even over time in order to sustain their families. Some parents in the working class lack education and therefore they would be of little help to help their children in doing their homework, they would also not be in a position to afford employing tutors and this affects their children’s education (Taylor Fraser 2003). Expectations on the working-class students are that they should conform to the middle-class. They thus seek to achieve this status and power mostly not for their own gain but in order to improve the life chances of others in the similar background. They are more focused in giving back to the community in which they originated rather than seeking their improvement in form of class status. A strong sense of solidarity is evident in these students as they have an increased desire to use their qualifications and professional status to achieve a better life for themselves and others who are like them. They have a passion to bridge the gap between the two classes which they believe that a lot has still to be done as the inequality gap is too large (Lins-Dyer Nucci 2007). The discriminatory education system has unquantifiable damages that are done to individuals and the society at large. People have been left behind in the system, others have been discouraged while yet a quite good proportion has been excluded from the system. It would not be unrealistic to claim that social and economic damage is being done through educational discrimination. When â€Å"Professor Janet McCalman analysed the places where those in the Australian who’s who 1988 went to school,† it was clear that these leaders in business professions and politics went to the older private schools (Moorhouse 2010, p. 1). McGregor (1997), views being in the working-class as being equal to being underprivileged, he asserts that people in this class earn and own less, their access to life privileges is minimal as they have poorer education and other goods from the society. In general, the opportunity that they have for good life is such minimal that with a very small degree of error, we can claim that equal opportunity does not exist in Australia. Impact to Health It is no wonder that health outcomes really vary with the social class. The characteristics of different social classes can be depicted by a view on Morbidity and mortality rates. The lower class shows a greater array of lower mortality rates and greater health problems (Greig, Lewins White, 2003). These differences are very clear and distinct at birth and throughout the human life cycle. Henry (2001) identifies domains in which health disparity issues differ by the social class. They include psychological domain which contains norms habits, and behavioural intentions. The other is listed as behavioural constraints which include economic resources and situational effects. Physical influences that include physiological stress, genetic dispositions and environmental conditions Behavioural constraints involve barriers that prevent one from engaging in health promoting behaviour. These inhibitors are listed by Henry (2001) as economic resources and situation constraints. Economic resources inhibitors are financial limitations that prevent individuals from obtaining health facilities goods, while situational constraints are factors that limit the access to these health facilities. They range from lack of adequate health facilities in the community, poor transportation or lack of proper time management in the utility of such services. Physical influences on the other hand are the conditions which impact physiological health directly. He groups them into environmental conditions, physiological stress and genetics A decline in the health is observed as one move down the classes. The middle class  Public awareness and educational programs can be developed to ensure that health equality is maintained. Social class has taken a critical point in the studies of health, the coronary heart disease for instance had been considered as a disease for the upper class. On the other hand, the lower class (working-class) have been found to have prevalent lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and increased mental disorders. Inequality in income brings about psychosocial stress which is a factor that increases the mortality rate; it has become apparent that mental illness prevalence has been found among the working class. A direct relationship has been identified to exist between poverty and increase in emotional disturbance. This has led to an increase of psychiatric disorders, drug and alcohol dependence on the working class (Murali Oyebode 2004). According to The Demography of Medical Schools, 59% of applicants in medical school usually come from high social classes. This makes us suspect that a discriminatory rule is being used in the medical institutions. However, admissions procedures in these schools seem to favour certain social classes in comparison to others. Requirements such as previous experience in a hospital are being considered for some medical school administration. This curtails the number of students enrolling to such schools as it proves cumbersome to attain such qualifications for most people in the working class. The access to opportunities has been limited for many students and this explains the reason why such patterns of students’ enrolment are being reflected (The Medical News 2004). The nature of the working class has really changed in Australia with over 65% of the work force being employed in the white-collar jobs. In fact if by defining the working-class as those who have not attended university education, then it can be said that Australia has graduated to the middle-class. It is surprising to note that the vast majority of white-collar jobs holders are part of the working-class. They have less control of their work which is even lower than that of blue-collar workers, consequently implying lower wages (Castles 1994). It is very clear that in Australia class has direct consequences on lifestyle. It affects the access to education and status attainment. A child raised in middle-class is more likely to end up in this middle class and the trend would be similar for a child raised in the middle-class. As we move up the social class, we are able to meet better health, education and other social facilities, which are transmitted to children. The trend thus seems to be perpetuated to future generations. A research conducted by Taylor and Fraser (2003) indicates the existence of a gap between children living in the different classes. The working class end up having stress in Parents relationships as they are unable to provide impeccable opportunities for their children. Children have in fact confessed that class is a factor that lead to social seclusion in academic life, and a contributing factor for educational disadvantage. Life’s chances are in this case affected by the mere fact that one belongs to a certain class that is either favoured or not by circumstances that prevail in the society. In Australia the government together with other institutions should be concerned and implement policies that would narrow the gap that exist between the various social classes. Such policies should focus on issues of adequate family income which will ensure that families have adequate resources to cater for the needs of their children and provide adequate opportunities for them, the welfare of workers should also be taken care of to ensure that each worker gets adequate time to attend to the family needs. In the school setting, policies should be developed to ensure that educational disadvantage has been reduced, and the cost of public education to be maintained as low as possible, to offer equal opportunities for children in all classes.  Affordable assistance should be accorded to specific children with learning difficulties in order to enhance excellence at all levels (Taylor Fraser 2003). Conclusion In conclusion it is very clear that Australia is faced with inequalities and other factors that enhance or inhibit opportunities that are available to children growing in this nation. There exists a challenge which should be looked at by all the policy makers in private and public enterprises, in order to ensure that the life chances of the children are not affected unfairly by the mere fact of belonging to a certain class.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Holdens Fear in The Catchter in the Rye :: essays research papers

In The Catcher in the Rye Holden fears growing up he will get uncomfortable when talking about adult situations, he would avoid seeing people just to avoid an adult predicament. Whether it will be a confrontation with his sister, or talking about a racy book with an adult he always seems to get timid. He is not quite yet ready for adulthood. This is something he needs to get ready for soon. He is 16 going on 17 and before he knows it he will be a grown up and will have to support himself and have a steady job. That involves communication. Holden will do absurd things just to avoid an uncomfortable situation even if it is his own sister whom he trusts more than anyone else. He searches for most of his afternoon for his sister and finally tracks her down. He has not seen her in a long time and he will have to tell her that he had gotten kicked out of Pency. Fearing what she might think or say, putting Holden in an uncomfortable position, made Holden leave when he could have been a little late for his date with Sally Hayes. Sally would have been reasonable if he was not there on time for seeing his sister whom Holden has not seen since he left for school. You do not just spend all afternoon searching for someone or something and once you find them or it leave, it just does not make any sense. Holden is becoming a man and the thought of sex should not scare him. He should be able to uphold conversations with them, even if the topic is racy. You both are grownups and it is human nature, it is natural and it is nothing to feel embarrassed or ashamed to talk about. While he is at the train station talking to the nuns about the play Romeo and Juliet he gets real uncomfortable. He said ?It feels weird talking to nuns about a book that gets pretty sexy at points.? Holden is now a young adult and should be able to talk about a book that contains that. The sexy parts we not even a part of the conversation just the thought of the book made him uneasy. He really likes to avoid discussions that contain sex. Holden truly fears growing up he would be close to someone he loves and just leave because he is afraid.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019


Ultimately all connected with one global system that generates many resources for everyone's use. 3. As human activities and practices continue Nexus River, it was more off regional problem for the people living in the community. Nutrients and other chemicals that are released into human resources and public areas affect the entire system and causes many changes. They had to spend money on resolving the problem of all of those dead fish and many researchers were Involved In figuring the problem out and reaching a solution. 2.Systems In this study focuses on Interactions among human systems and those that are found In nature. Basically Interacting components that Influence one another by exchanging energy or materials. For example, the Nexus River. We don't study Isolated areas of smaller regions because environmental scientists are Interested In larger scale septets and problems, such as the global climate system. Smaller systems are part of larger systems and are ultimately all conn ected with one global system that generates many resources for everyone's use. 3.As human satellites and practices continue to affect our environment and world, we see that these interdisciplinary principles both aid scientists and somewhat cause problems. These principles show us many ways in which we are effecting the world, what factors we are changing. But also with all of these principles, this study gets very large and broad, and soon becomes a huge study. Many conflicts probably occur and even though there might be controversy between one law and the other, they are all needed in this study.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

My Goals for Introductory Psychology Essay

It is my hope that this introduction into psychology will open new ways of understanding how our minds work and the impact our mental processes have on our everyday lives. My goal is to learn how to become a more insightful reader and thinker across disciplines so that I can apply this new knowledge to practical issues in a thoughtful and educated manner. My initial goal is to become a critical reader of our course readings. In order to accomplish this I am going to change my reading habits by utilizing an active approach, including highlighting, note-taking, and asking questions when I am not clear. By tracking my reading and keeping the information organized in my notes I will have direct access to my thoughts about a psychological issues. Specifically, I will maintain a detailed bank of information to draw from when I need to study for a paper or an exam. This alone will be immensely helpful in putting a halt to my current procrastination method and will open up new ways of learning about our mental applications. I will be able to track my progress by how well I retain the information I am reading and by how well I am able to implement this knowledge into practical situations, whether settling an argument, planning my future, or developing personal relationships. I am very comfortable accessing and utilizing computer based texts to help me gather information. On-line quizzes are helpful in testing general knowledge and they point out areas that are in need of improvement. I also follow links to study aids and suggested websites because they often provide detailed information about specific topics as opposed to the general information provided in some textbooks. In addition, Wiki pages and hyperlinked text pages can offer many different lines of inquiry. For example, when I am studying about Freud, I can follow through to pages that are specifically oriented to the id, ego, and superego. Furthermore, I can follow these links to pages about the subconscious or to pages about his notions concerning dreams, desires, and impulses. I am hoping that this course will shed light on the way people act as we do. I am interested in discovering some of my root motivations for holding certain attitudes and beliefs, for example what types of pre-conceived ideas I hold about strangers, or how I react to the way people judge me without fully knowing my personality. I feel that the more we can understand our impulses and desires the more we can direct our energy toward our ideal selves; this psychological basis will be a key to this approach. Being a critical thinker will open these pathways to understanding by incorporating various psychological perspectives to complement my knowledge up to this point. Instead of simply taking things at face value, I will be able to apply my critical knowledge to my everyday life in a more nuanced and balanced understanding.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Intonation Phrases in Phonetics

Intonation Phrases in Phonetics In phonetics, an intonation phrase is a stretch (or chunk) of spoken material that has its own intonation pattern (or tune). Also called an  intonation group, phonological phrase, tone unit, or tone group. The intonation phrase (IP) is the basic unit of intonation. In a phonetic analysis, the vertical bar symbol (|) is used to represent the boundary between two intonation phrases. Examples and Observations When speakers produce words in a row, we can usually observe that they are structured: individual words are grouped together to form an intonation phrase... Intonation phrases can coincide with breath groups..., but they do not have to. Often a breath group contains more than one intonation phrase. As with all other phonological units, it is assumed that speakers have a mental representation of intonation phrases, i.e. they know how to produce speech structured into intonation phrases and they rely on this knowledge when listening to the speech of others. Within an intonation phrase, there is typically one word that is most prominent... Some utterances might contain just one intonation phrase, others might contain several of them. Moreover, speakers can put utterances together to form larger stretches of speech or discourse... Intonational phrasing in English can have a meaning-distinguishing function. Consider utterances 11a and 11b: (11a) He washed and fed the dog. (11b) He washed | and fed the dog. If the intonation phrase He washed and fed the dog is produced as one intonation phrase, its meaning is that a person both washed and fed a dog. Conversely, if the same utterance is produced as a sequence of two intonation phrases with an intonation boundary after washed (indicated by the symbol |), the meaning of the utterance changes into someone who washed himself and fed a dog. (Ulrike Gut, Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology. Peter Lang, 2009) Intonation Contours Intonation often does serve to convey information of a broadly meaningful nature . . .. For example, the falling pitch we hear at the end of a statement in English such as Fred parked the car signals that the utterance is complete. For this reason, falling intonation at the end of an utterance is called a terminal (intonation) contour. Conversely, a rising or level intonation, called a nonterminal (intonation) contour, often signals incompleteness. Nonterminal contours are often heard in the nonfinal forms found in lists and telephone numbers. (William OGrady et al., Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction, 4th ed. Bedford/St. Martins, 2001) Tonality (Chunking) The speaker does not necessarily have to follow the rule of an IP for each clause. There are many cases where different kinds of chunking are possible. For example, if a speaker wants to say We dont know who she is, it is possible to say the whole utterance as a single IP ( one intonation pattern): We dont know who she is. But it is also possible to divide the material up, in at least the following possible ways: We dont know | who she is. We | dont know who she is. We dont | know who she is. We | dont know | who she is. Thus the speaker may present the material as two, or three, pieces of information rather than a single piece. This is tonality (or chunking). (J. C. Wells, English Intonation: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2006) The Position of Intonation Phrase Boundaries The position of intonation phrase boundaries shows a good amount of variability. These have been studied in English on the basis of positions of possible pauses within clauses (Selkirk 1984b, Taglicht 1998 and references there) and positions of obligatory pauses (Downing 1970). . . . The core result is that root clauses, and only these, are bounded by obligatory intonation phrase breaks. (Root clauses are clauses [CPs] not imbedded inside of a higher clause that has a subject and a predicate.) (Hubert Truckenbrodt, The Syntax-Phonology Interface. The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, ed. by Paul de Lacy. Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

5 Steps for Balancing Chemical Equations

5 Steps for Balancing Chemical Equations Being able to balance chemical equations is a vital skill for chemistry. Heres a look at the steps involved in balancing equations, plus a worked example of how to balance an equation. Steps of Balancing a Chemical Equation Identify each element found in the equation. The number of atoms of each type of atom must be the same on each side of the equation once it has been balanced.What is the net charge on each side of the equation? The net charge must be the same on each side of the equation once it has been balanced.If possible, start with an element found in one compound on each side of the equation. Change the coefficients (the numbers in front of the compound or molecule) so that the number of atoms of the element is the same on each side of the equation. Remember, to balance an equation, you change the coefficients, not the subscripts in the formulas.Once you have balanced one element, do the same thing with another element. Proceed until all elements have been balanced. Its easiest to leave elements found in pure form for last.Check your work to make certain the charge on both sides of the equation is also balanced. Example of Balancing a Chemical Equation ? CH4 ? O2 → ? CO2 ? H2O Identify the elements in the equation: C, H, OIdentify the net charge: no net charge, which makes this one easy! H is found in CH4 and H2O, so its a good starting element.You have 4 H in CH4 yet only 2 H in H2O, so you need to double the coefficient of H2O to balance H.1 CH4 ? O2 → ? CO2 2 H2OLooking at carbon, you can see that CH4 and CO2 must have the same coefficient.1 CH4 ? O2 → 1 CO2 2 H2OFinally, determine the O coefficient. You can see you need to double the O2 coefficient in order to get 4 O seen on the product side of the reaction.1 CH4 2 O2 → 1 CO2 2 H2OCheck your work. Its standard to drop a coefficient of 1, so the final balanced equation would be written:CH4 2 O2 → CO2 2 H2O Take a quiz to see if you understand how to balance simple chemical equations. How to Balance a Chemical Equation for a Redox Reaction Once you understand how to balance an equation in terms of mass, youre ready to learn how to balance an equation for both mass and charge. Reduction/oxidation or redox reactions and acid-base reactions often involve charged species. Balancing for charge means you have the same net charge on both the reactant and product side of the equation. This isnt always zero! Heres an example of how to balance the reaction between potassium permanganate and iodide ion in aqueous sulfuric acid to form potassium iodide and manganese(II) sulfate. This is a typical acid reaction. First, write the unbalanced chemical equation:KMnO4  Ã‚  KI  Ã‚  H2SO4  Ã¢â€ â€™Ã‚  I2  Ã‚  MnSO4Write down the oxidation numbers for each type of atom on both sides of the equation:Left hand side: K 1; Mn 7; O -2; I 0; H 1; S 6Right hand side: I 0; Mn 2, S 6; O -2Find the atoms that experience a change in oxidation number:Mn: 7 → 2; I: 1 → 0Write a skeleton ionic equation that only covers the atoms that change oxidation number:MnO4- → Mn2I- → I2Balance all of the atoms besides the oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) in the half-reactions:MnO4- → Mn22I- → I2Now add O and H2O as needed to balance oxygen:MnO4- → Mn2 4H2O2I- → I2Balance the hydrogen by adding H as needed:MnO4- 8H → Mn2 4H2O2I- → I2Now, balance charge by adding electrons as needed. In this example, the first half-reaction has a charge of 7 on the left and 2 on the right. Add 5 electrons to the left to balance the charge. The second half-re action has 2- on the left and 0 on the right. Add 2 electrons to the right.MnO4- 8H 5e- → Mn2 4H2O2I- → I2 2e- Multiply the two half-reactions by the number that yields the lowest common number of electrons in each half-reaction. For this example, the lowest multiple of 2 and 5 is 10, so multiply the first equation by 2 and the second equation by 5:2 x [MnO4- 8H 5e- → Mn2 4H2O]5 x [2I- → I2 2e-]Add together the two half-reactions and cancel out species that appear on each side of the equation:2MnO4- 10I- 16H → 2Mn2 5I2 8H2O Now, its a good idea to check your work by making sure the atoms and charge are balanced: Left hand side:  2 Mn; 8 O; 10 I; 16 HRight hand side:  2 Mn; 10 I; 16 H; 8 O Left hand side:  Ã¢Ë†â€™2  Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ‚  10  16  Ã‚  4Right hand side:  4

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Plastic Surgery College Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Plastic Surgery College - Essay Example Reconstructive surgery on the other hand can be defined as the surgery which can be pursued by so many people and this is only appropriate to those people who have irregular formations on their bodies. So, it is due to these irregular formations on ones body which has led to the reconstructive surgery by these people in order to try and make their bodies look good and also proportional. An example is the presence of a broken scar or even an earlobe which is so common to so many people. It is due to this fact you will tend to find that people will do plastic surgery on their bodies. So in real essence, plastic surgery is done on people's body in order to try and change their looks. So research was done in most of the teenagers and adults since these are the type of people who are basically doing plastic surgery so that they can be in a position to try and change their bodies' images. It was out of the research which was done on these people which gave the following advantages and disa dvantages. (Lovice, 2000). Plastic surgery can have so many advantages but only when the right procedures have been applied. A good example to explain this is the case of the cosmetic surgery which is one of the plastic surgeries used by so many people. This is because cosmetic surgery can be one of the things one would need in order to enhance ones image. Everyone would love to have a beautiful look and this is what is making so many people to dash for plastic surgery since with plastic surgery, one is in a position to improve on ones image. Plastic surgery has been a solution for so many people to try and change their images. Plastic surgery is seen to have peoples sensitivity, psychology and bodily. This is because in most cases, the representation or even the observation of ones body can be used in many cases to manage ones life obliquely. In this case, am trying to say than plastic surgery can help in improving ones facade and hence can be used as one of the achievement to ones life. You find that during the growth of a person especially those people who are brought up at the rural areas whereby they have to do most of the families activities say looking after the cattle, collecting firewood's, you will find that these people are exposed to so many body arms which will lead to so many scars in their bodies. At times, such scars are not well pleasing to look at and hence it is due to this fact you will find that so many people will do plastic surgery so that they can be in a position to improve on their appearance. So in this case, plastic surgery will have the impact of improving ones body hence leading to ones excel in life. (Lovice, 2000). Plastic surgery has also the advantage of making people to look healthier and energetic. You find that so many people can have the benefits of plastic surgery not only at their early ages but they can have these benefits even at any given age. This is because it is not sensitive to age. Even the old people can use plastic surgery so that they can be in a position to look good and healthy. So in this case, for example those adult people who do plastic surgery, they eventually prepare themselves mentally for the gorgeous and beautiful looks hence can make them look good and healthy. It is due to the development of their looks which can then be seen to make them live more energetically. Patients in this case are also seen to have an emotional powerful improvement while performing plastic surgery. An

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Web Conferencing Its role in strengthening the business Essay

Web Conferencing Its role in strengthening the business - Essay Example The data for this study was collected and compiled from various literatures like books and journals so that a conclusion could be arrived on advantages and disadvantages of the technology. Qualitative methodology was used for this study so that literature related to the topic only could be used throughout the study underlining the topic of this study. The study reveals that web conferencing is more beneficial when compared to its disadvantages in the long run. The tool completely reduces the costs related to travel, food and accommodation of the team members and also saves time that is consumed during travelling facilitating the employees to communicate with their team members and participate in the conference from their branch office. The present paper will provide information to other researchers about the impact of web conferencing on the business organization and their disadvantages and advantages. The study is compilation of good number of literatures which are not easy to find and will serve the researchers with good information. The development has come a long way in terms of communication. Gone are the days when king used to send his messenger to convey message to his counterpart. Then came the government postal service followed by historic invention of telephone which enabled voice based communication minimizing the time and effort on both sides. But development was not meant to be stopped, only through innovation of telephone, the world wanted more. Internet created a revolution in the world providing effective communication through email and online chatting. Businesses compete in this competitive world of business on the basis of effective communication. Most of the organizations have gone global paving the way for globalization. In view of this, multinational companies opt for better and effective communication regarding the performance of business which was possible through email, online chatting, etc. But, there are times, when the organization wants to communicate through all its managers located at different locations, make some presentation, management briefing, etc., where email and chat tools look inefficient and web conferencing offers which other communication tool don't offer. David Geer (2005, p.14) states that web conferencing reduces the time for making decisions and according to the In-Stat/MDR statistics, web conferencing services have increased by 70% i.e $765 million from $450 million between the years 2002 and 2004 and was expected to reach $1.5 billion by the year 2007. Therefore the present paper is aimed at the importance of web conferencing in the present global scenario in regards to business and to identify its advantages and disadvantages. Web Conferencing - What, Why and How According to IEEE (2010) 'web conferencing' is a technology that allows multiple meeting with participants for effective communication with each other, live over the internet. Web conference requires people to meet in a dedicated online conference center which has the facility to share audio, video and files in real time. It facilitates an individual or group of people scattered from different places to communicate and accomplish common goals without travel expenses or technical hurdles. The technology which is the product of Web 2.0 offers variant support and facilities with regard to communication strategy. In general, web conferencing facilitates elimination of expensive and time consuming business travels; sharing video, audio, viewing

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Identity analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Identity analysis - Essay Example This is something significant in that the difference is nothing more than just race and colour. Statistics constantly brings in the fact that women are more likely to be poor than men. In fact, women are more susceptible and more exposed to hunger because of the universal subordination and gender discrimination they contend with in education, healthcare, employment, and in controlling resources and political authority. Although violence against women is existent across all economic groups, women who are suffering from poverty experience it more frequently and they have less possessions or means with which to deal with the situation. Poverty among women is a global truth that reveals itself differently from one country to another; nevertheless, the factors and figures in global gender discrimination are blindingly comparable: gender disparities in wages, work-related discrimination, dangerous employment conditions, and uneven necessities in household and childhood care among others. B y and large, this social development in terms of gender has aided in the explosion of feminist movement. My case is not only a contention of how Hispanic women are being represented – and just because I am a Mexican – but it is about the subordination of women on the sole basis of gender and how this has caused social stratification and elitism. Rummaging through the vast array of literature, I have found a strong resemblance in Hua Mulan, a fictitious character who made a resounding message throughout the world by proving that women can do what men can do. Hua Mulan disguised herself as a man to be allowed to join the Imperial army in order to protect their community. Hua Mulan then became an icon not just within the context of the text in which she has been storied, but even in various forms of media. Her valiant determination to join the army despite her femininity – she’s short, skinny, and very demure – was an index to the changing roles of wo men during her time. Women during her time were expected to stay at home as wife or helper and nothing more. For someone who has no background or anything about the character and the film in general, Hua Mulan may appear to express connotations beyond Chinese traditions. Her figure encourages an act to decode the essence of translatability. Today, an increasing proportion of the world’s population suffering from poverty signified women. Women as an object of gender criticism, extreme subordination, and social stratification established the specious ontology of women, which happens to have defined the belief of the kind of society dominated by paternal mentality. This implies a striking reality that the feminization of poverty continues to become a concerning truth. The mainstream media has described women in myriads of way. As aforementioned, these descriptions have formed the false ontology of what is supposed to be the bearer of burden and icon that signified bravery and ch ange. Violence According to various studies, a great majority of women are victims of human trafficking that is manifested in various forms such as prostitution, which is considered to be the most common and widespread form of human trafficking (UNICEF 11). This then contributed to the way women became interpretant of weakness. Worsening of living conditions usually forces children to quit school in order to help the family survive, placing them susceptible to exploitation and violence. For instance, some young girls in Zimbabwe are trading sex in exchange for food for

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Multi-objective Optimization Mathematical Model

Multi-objective Optimization Mathematical Model CHAPTER 3 PRODUCTION COST WORK INJURY LEVEL MODELLING 3.1 Introduction This chapter describes a multi-objective optimization mathematical model with decision variables and constraints on them. Section 3.2 presents the model formulation with aim to minimize the total production cost and work injury level particularly in a manufacturing industry over a planning horizon. Section 3.3 presents [ZC1]the case study drawn from literature to validate the proposed model. Section 3.4 presents the method to calculate the work injury cost with consideration of work injury level factor. Section 3.5 gives the summary for this chapter. Model formulation The traditional production planning model is a mathematical optimization model. In such a model, the objective function is the total cost, and the decision variable refers to production quantity, inventory quantity, and outsourcing quantity. The constraint function in the traditional production planning model includes the demand in a planning horizon. In the work of (Xu, 2015), the traditional model includes the work injury cost. The expansion of the model hence mentions the description of the objective function and constraints. The model aims to achieve the two objective are: Objective 1 (ob1): Minimize production cost (CP). Objective 2 (ob2): Minimize work injury level (WIL). Model Assumptions A mathematical model herein is developed on the following assumptions are: The values of all parameters are certain over the next period t in planning horizon. Actual labor levels, working hours and warehouse capacity in each period cannot exceed their respective maximum levels. The number of workers and tasks are the same over the planning horizon. A single type of product is manufactured over the planning horizon. Trivial solutions will be ignored. Model Notations The following notations are used after reviewing the literature and considering practical scenarios (Wang Liang, 2004; Masud Hwang, 1980; Wang Fang, 2001; Chakrabortty Hasin, 2013). t: the time period (t=1, 2, 3, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦, n). CMR: the regular unit material cost of the product ($/unit). CMO: the overtime unit material cost of the product ($/unit). Pt: the number of products fabricated (production quantity) during the regular working hours in the period t (unit). Ot: the number of products fabricated (overtime production quantity) during the overtime in period t (unit). CLR: the regular unit labor cost in period t ($/unit). CLO: the overtime unit labor cost in period t ($/unit). Ht: the regular working man-hour required in period t (man-hour). Et: the overtime working man-hour required in period t (man-hour). CI: the unit inventory cost ($/unit). It: the units of product to be left over as an inventory during period t (unit). CWI: total work injury cost over the planning horizon.[C2] [aa3] It-1: the units of leftover products in the previous period of t. dt: the product demand in period t. D: the total demand over the planning horizon. dn: the number of working days in period t. W :the number of employees. E* : allowable overtime hours in period t. Objective function (ob1) To achieve the ob1, the integrated production planning was used in order to minimize the production cost. The total production cost consists of the material cost, labor cost, inventory cost and work injury cost. Let C represent various costs. The total cost is hence denoted by: (3.1) [ZC4] where Cproduction: the total production cost. Cmaterial: the material cost. Clabor: the labor cost. Cinventory: the inventory cost. CWI: work injury cost. where Material Cost: Material cost is the sum of regular material cost and overtime material cost that includes the raw material cost and overhead cost. Raw material directly contributes to the finished product, and the overhead cost includes the utility cost such as electricity, gas and rent etc. Labor Cost: Labor cost is the sum of all wages paid to employees for the production of products in both regular time and overtime hours. Inventory cost: Inventory cost is the holding cost of products in stock. Work injury cost: the work injury cost caused by the repetitive assembly production over an entire production period The first objective function (ob1) of the model is to minimize the cost of production (eq. 3.2). (3.2) (3.3) Moreover, equation 3.1 can be written as: [ZC5][aa6] Where, the first part of equation 3.3, represents the regular material cost (CMR) incurred on the regular production quantity (Pt) and overtime material cost (CMO) on overtime production quantity (Ot) over the planning period. The second part represents the labour cost (workers salary) and it is the combination of the regular unit labor cost (CLR) during regular working hours (Ht) and the overtime unit labor cost (CLO) in overtime working hours (Et). The third part is the unit inventory cost for left over products as an inventory over the period (It) and the final part denotes the accumulated work injury cost (CWI) during regular working man-hour (Ht) and the overtime working man-hour (Et). Furthermore, the Cwiis calculated on a yearly basis with 21.74 working days in a month and 8-hour shift as per the study by Lin. (2008). It can be seen in equation (). (2) Objective function (ob2) The second objective function (ob2) of the modelis to minimize the work injury levels over the planning horizon as shown below; Furthermore Where, equation () represents the accumulated work injury level (WIL) during regular working man-hour (Ht) and the overtime working man-hour (Et) in the time period t. As discussed in literature that increase in regular and overtime production quantity will increase the work injury level because of long exposure of worker to the repetitive task. Therefore, higher the production quantity, the longer the working hours and the higher the work injury level. Overall objective function Decision variables The decision variables in the above model are explained below: Production quantity (Pt) during the regular working time in period t. Overtime production quantity (Ot) in period t. Number of products in inventory (It) in period t. Dependant variables Regular working man-hour (Ht) required in period t. Overtime working man-hour (Et) required in period t. 3.2.3 Constraints Demand constraint (3.4) (3.4) Where, the sum of regular production quantity (Pt), overtime production quantity (Ot) and inventory levels essentially greater than or equal to the market demand (dt) in a period t as shown in equation 3.4. Moreover, the sum of all periods demand (dt) should be greater than or equal to total demand (D) over planning horizon as shown in equation 3.4. Labor hour limit constraint. (3.5) where, equation (3.5) represents the regular working man-hour (Ht) in period t should be less than or equal to 8 hours per day, monthly working days (dn) as well as number of employees (W). Overtime working man-hour (Et) should not exceed the allowable hours (E*) by law. Production rate constraint. Assume that the unit time is one hour, and the relation between the produced units and labor can be expressed as: (3.6)[C7] where Rh: the production rate during regular working time. Re: the production rate during overtime. Non-negative constraints. The number of produced product, the number of demand and the unit labor cost are non-negative, respectively that is: (3.7) Model implementation To validate the model efficiency, the specific case study about the aggregate production planning of single product is selected. This case study is drawn from the literature and the author s own experience in industry (Chakrabortty Hasin, 2013). Case study description To validate the proposed model, the real life data of Comfit Composite Knit Limited (CCKL) is taken. The company manufactures knit ware product. The production planning is more specifically about the production of hooded jacket over a couple of months planning horizon. Table 3.1 3.2 give the monthly product demand, and related cost data are as follows. Table 3.1 Product demand over planning horizon Period (t) May June Demand (dt) (units) 1400 3000 Table 3.2 Cost data of case study Regular time unit material cost (CMR) 14 ($/unit) Overtime unit material cost (CMO) 28 ($/unit) Inventory Cost (CI) 3.5 ($/unit) Regular time unit labor cost (CLR) 8 ($/unit) Overtime unit labor cost (CLO) 12 ($/unit) . Table 3.3 Model Constraint Data: Initial Inventory level- I0 500 End inventory in period- I2 400 Labor hour (Ht 0+ Et) à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 225 man-hours Production rate (Rh) 0.033 man-hour/unit In given case study, the company makes knit ware product (Hooded Jacket). In manufacturing of product, the job requires a worker posture in a standing position to process the product on a machine. The worker need to place the product parts in a machine to stitch it , for this reason worker has to lean forward to focus on the product parts. The neck may bend to get a better view of stitching if required. To perform this task, the upper arms are need to be elevated to the height of the work table. To place the product part in a right way the body rotation is required (Fig. 3.1). 3.3 Work injury cost (Cwi) calculation Work injury cost [C8](Cwi) is calculated by using the model proposed by Lin (2008). This model is shown here (Eq. 3.8): (3.8) where CWI: the cost of work injuries; ÃŽÂ ±n: the coefficient of multiplier associated with each variable X1 to X7. X1: the type of business Manufacturing; M61; 1: Mills and Semi-medium 0: otherwise; X2: the type of business M81; 1: Metal Foundries and Mills; 0: otherwise; X3: the type of business M91; 1: Agricultural Equipment; 0: otherwise; X4: the type of business M92; 1: if it is Machine Shops, Manufacturing; 0: otherwise; X5: workers age. X6: gender; 1: if it is male; 0: otherwise; X7: the level of work injury. ÃŽÂ µ: the error term. The work injury levels of different body parts are presented in Table 3.13 (Lin, 2008). Table 3.13 Work injury level range Parts of Body Level of work injury Upper Arm 1-6 Forearm 1-3 Wrist 1-4 Neck 1-6 Trunk 1-6 Leg 1-7 The statistics software SPSS ® is used (Lin, 2008) to determine the coefficient of every variable in equation 3.8. In the first step, all data regarding each variable were redefined. In the second step, work injury cost (dependent variable) was adjusted by power transformation. Hence, the work injury cost model is expressed by the following equations (Lin, 2008). (3.9) (3.10) (3.11) (3.12) (3.13) (3.14) After the second step, Equation 3.9 to 3.14 were again adjusted to calculate the work injury cost. The manufacturing type of business is considered, therefore X1=X2=X3=0 and X4=1. It has been noticed that the age and gender coefficient were small and can be neglected. Furthermore, the equation states that work injury levels were the major part in work injury cost (Xu, 2015). The revised work injury cost model equations are as follows; (3.15) (3.16) (3.17) (3.18) (3.19) (3.20) From the above discussion, it was noticed that to calculate the work injury cost the first step is to measure the work injury level of a given posture. Moreover, in order to measure the work injury level (WIL), DELMIA ®V5 production software (Lin,2008) is used. In the first step, Human Builder tool is used for posture visualization. In the second step, posture simulation is done by using Posture Editor tool. In the last step, to measure work injury level for the particular posture RULA (Hedge, 2001) is applied. 3.5 SUMMARY In this chapter, multi objective optimization model was tailored to achieve desired objectives. First objective was to minimize the total production cost over the planning horizon with consideration of work injury cost factor. Second objective was to minimize the work injury levels over the planning horizon. In Section 3.2 multi objective optimization was made along with decision variables and constraints on them. Assumptions and notations were taken from Chakrabortty Hasin. (2013), Wang et al. (2005) and Xu. (2015). In the next Section 3.3 the case study was presented to validate the model. In Section 3.4 work injury cost calculation method was presented with its all variables and work injury level range. Thus, both objectives 1 2 mentioned in chapter 1 have been achieved by proposed model. More detail regarding the results will be discussed in next chapter.